Periodic Table


Atomic number: 83
Atomic weight: 208.98038
Symbol: Bi
Group number: 15
Electronic configuration: [Xe].4f14.5d10.6s2.6p3


Bismuth is a white, crystalline, brittle metal with a pinkish tinge. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic of all metals, and the thermal conductivity is lower than any metal, except mercury. It has a high electrical resistance, and has the highest Hall effect of any metal (that is, the greatest increase in electrical resistance when placed in a magnetic field).

General information

Discoveror: Known to ancients
Date discovered:
Discovered at: n.a.
Meaning of name: From the German word "bisemutum"

Physical data

Standard state: solid at 298 K
Colour: lustrous reddish white
Density of solid at ambient temperature/kg m-3: 9780
Molar volume/cm3: 21.31

Radii /pm

Atomic: 143
Covalent (single bond):
Pauling radius for the ion [Bi]-: no data

Valence shell orbital radius maxima (Rmax)
orbital s p d f


Both values are quoted on the Pauling scale.

Pauling: 2.02
Allred Rochow: 1.67

Crystal Structure

structure: monoclinic

The following CrystalMaker image represents the solid state structure. For most elements, the most stable allotrope is illustrated. Try WebElements version 2 for interactive virtual reality and CHIME images.


Temperatures (/K)

melting point: 544.4
boiling point: 1837

Enthalpies /kJ mol-1

fusion: 10.9
vaporization: 165

single bond enthalpies:
Bi-F Bi-Cl Bi-Br Bi-I Bi-Bi
297 274 232 168 200.4

Ionization enthalpies /kJ mol-1

Number Enthalpy


This section gives some data for naturally occurring isotopes.
Nominal mass Accurate mass % natural abundance
209Bi208.980374 (5)100

Further Information

Copyright 1997 Mark Winter
Department of Chemistry at the University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7HF, England.

The current version of this document is at http://www.shef.ac.uk/~chem/web-elements-I/Bi.html