Periodic Table


Atomic number: 60
Atomic weight: 144.24
Symbol: Nd
Group number: (lanthanide)
Electronic configuration: [Xe].4f4.6s2


Neodymium is present in misch metal to the extent of about 18%.

The metal has a bright silvery metallic lustre. Neodymium is one of the more reactive rare-earth metals and quickly tarnishes in air, forming an oxide that spalls off and exposes the metal to further oxidation. It is one of the rare earth metals.

General information

Discoveror: Carl F. Auer von Welsbach
Date discovered: 1885
Discovered at: Austria
Meaning of name: From the Greek words "neos didymos" meaning "new twin"

Physical data

Standard state: solid at 298 K
Colour: silvery white, yellowish tinge
Density of solid at ambient temperature/kg m-3: 6800
Molar volume/cm3: 20.59

Radii /pm

Atomic: 206
Covalent (single bond):
Pauling radius for the ion [Nd]-: no data

Valence shell orbital radius maxima (Rmax)
orbital s p d f
radius221.8no datano data34.6


Both values are quoted on the Pauling scale.

Pauling: 1.14
Allred Rochow: 1.07

Crystal Structure

structure: hcp (hexagonal close-packed)

The following CrystalMaker image represents the solid state structure. For most elements, the most stable allotrope is illustrated. Try WebElements version 2 for interactive virtual reality and CHIME images.


Temperatures (/K)

melting point: 1297
boiling point: 3373

Enthalpies /kJ mol-1

fusion: 7.14
vaporization: 285

single bond enthalpies:
Nd-F Nd-Cl Nd-Br Nd-I Nd-Nd
no data no data no data 323.8 163

Ionization enthalpies /kJ mol-1

Number Enthalpy


This section gives some data for naturally occurring isotopes.
Nominal mass Accurate mass % natural abundance
142Nd141.907719 (4)27.13 (12)
143Nd142.909810 (4)12.18 (6)
144Nd143.910083 (4)23.80 (12)
145Nd144.912570 (4)8.30 (6)
146Nd145.913113 (4)17.19 (9)
148Nd147.916889 (4)5.76 (3)
150Nd149.920887 (4)5.64 (3)

Further Information

Copyright 1997 Mark Winter
Department of Chemistry at the University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7HF, England.

The current version of this document is at http://www.shef.ac.uk/~chem/web-elements-I/Nd.html