WebElements

Periodic Table

scandium

Atomic number: 21
Atomic weight: 44.955910
Symbol: Sc
Group number: 3
Electronic configuration: [Ar].3d1.4s2

Description

Scandium is apparently a much more abundant element in the sun and certain stars than on earth.

Scandium is a silvery-white metal which develops a slightly yellowish or pinkish cast upon exposure to air. It is relatively soft, and resembles yttrium and the rare-earth metals more than it resembles aluminium or titanium. Scandium reacts rapidly with many acids.

General information

Discoveror: Lars Fredrik Nilson
Date discovered: 1879
Discovered at: Sweden
Meaning of name: From the Latin word "Scandia" meaning "Scandinavia"

Physical data

Standard state: solid at 298 K
Colour: silvery yellow
Density of solid at ambient temperature/kg m-3: 2985
Molar volume/cm3: 15.00

Radii /pm

Atomic: 184
Covalent (single bond):
Pauling radius for the ion [Sc]-: no data

Valence shell orbital radius maxima (Rmax)
orbital s p d f
radius171.6no data59.2no data

Electronegativities

Both values are quoted on the Pauling scale.

Pauling: 1.36
Allred Rochow: 1.20

Crystal Structure

structure: hcp (hexagonal close-packed)

The following CrystalMaker image represents the solid state structure. For most elements, the most stable allotrope is illustrated. Try WebElements version 2 for interactive virtual reality and CHIME images.

ball-and-stick.gif

Temperatures (/K)

melting point: 1814
boiling point: 3103

Enthalpies /kJ mol-1

fusion: 15.8
vaporization: 318

single bond enthalpies:
Sc-F Sc-Cl Sc-Br Sc-I Sc-Sc
no data no data no data no data 162.8

Ionization enthalpies /kJ mol-1

Number Enthalpy
1st631
2nd1235
3rd2389
4th7089
5th8844
6th10720
7th13320
8th15310

Isotopes

This section gives some data for naturally occurring isotopes.
Nominal mass Accurate mass % natural abundance
45Sc44.95591000 (14)100

Further Information

Copyright 1997 Mark Winter
Department of Chemistry at the University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7HF, England.

The current version of this document is at http://www.shef.ac.uk/~chem/web-elements-I/Sc.html