WebElements

Periodic Table

titanium

Atomic number: 22
Atomic weight: 47.867
Symbol: Ti
Group number: 4
Electronic configuration: [Ar].3d2.4s2

Description

Titanium is present in meteorites and in the sun. Some lunar rocks contain high concentrations of the dioxide. Titanium oxide bands are prominent in the spectra of M-type stars. Titanium, when pure, is a lustrous, white metal. It has a low density, good strength, is easily fabricated, and has excellent corrosion resistance. The metal burns in air and is the only element that burns in nitrogen. It is marvellous in fireworks.

Titanium is resistant to dilute sulphuric and hydrochloric acid, most organic acids, damp chlorine gas, and chloride solutions. Titanium metal is considered to be physiologically inert.

General information

Discoveror: William Gregor
Date discovered: 1791
Discovered at: England
Meaning of name: Named after the "Titans", (the sons of the Earth goddess in Greek mythology)

Physical data

Standard state: solid at 298 K
Colour: silvery metallic
Density of solid at ambient temperature/kg m-3: 4507
Molar volume/cm3: 10.64

Radii /pm

Atomic: 176
Covalent (single bond):
Pauling radius for the ion [Ti]-: no data

Valence shell orbital radius maxima (Rmax)
orbital s p d f
radius162.2no data52.8no data

Electronegativities

Both values are quoted on the Pauling scale.

Pauling: 1.54
Allred Rochow: 1.32

Crystal Structure

structure: hcp (hexagonal close-packed)

The following CrystalMaker image represents the solid state structure. For most elements, the most stable allotrope is illustrated. Try WebElements version 2 for interactive virtual reality and CHIME images.

ball-and-stick.gif

Temperatures (/K)

melting point: 1941
boiling point: 3560

Enthalpies /kJ mol-1

fusion: 18.7
vaporization: 425

single bond enthalpies:
Ti-F Ti-Cl Ti-Br Ti-I Ti-Ti
no data no data no data 366.9 141.4

Ionization enthalpies /kJ mol-1

Number Enthalpy
1st658
2nd1310
3rd2653
4th4175
5th9573
6th11516
7th13590
8th16260

Isotopes

This section gives some data for naturally occurring isotopes.
Nominal mass Accurate mass % natural abundance
46Ti45.9526294 (14)8.0 (1)
47Ti46.9517640 (11)7.3 (1)
48Ti47.9479473 (11)73.8 (1)
49Ti48.9478711 (11)5.5 (1)
50Ti49.9447921 (12)5.4 (1)

Further Information

Copyright 1997 Mark Winter
Department of Chemistry at the University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7HF, England.

The current version of this document is at http://www.shef.ac.uk/~chem/web-elements-I/Ti.html