WebElements

Periodic Table

vanadium

Atomic number: 23
Atomic weight: 50.9415
Symbol: V
Group number: 5
Electronic configuration: [Ar].3d3.4s2

Description

Pure vanadium is a bright white metal, and is soft and ductile. It has good corrosion resistance to alkalis, sulphuric and hydrochloric acid, and salt waters, but the metal oxidises readily above 660°C.

General information

Discoveror: Nils Sefstrom
Date discovered: 1801
Discovered at: Sweden
Meaning of name: Named after "Vanadis", a goddess in Scandinavian mythology

Physical data

Standard state: solid at 298 K
Colour: silvery grey metallic
Density of solid at ambient temperature/kg m-3: 6110
Molar volume/cm3: 8.32

Radii /pm

Atomic: 171
Covalent (single bond):
Pauling radius for the ion [V]-: no data

Valence shell orbital radius maxima (Rmax)
orbital s p d f
radius154.4no data47.9no data

Electronegativities

Both values are quoted on the Pauling scale.

Pauling: 1.63
Allred Rochow: 1.45

Crystal Structure

structure: bcc (body-centred cubic)

The following CrystalMaker image represents the solid state structure. For most elements, the most stable allotrope is illustrated. Try WebElements version 2 for interactive virtual reality and CHIME images.

ball-and-stick.gif

Temperatures (/K)

melting point: 2183
boiling point: 3680

Enthalpies /kJ mol-1

fusion: 22.8
vaporization: 453

single bond enthalpies:
V-F V-Cl V-Br V-I V-V
no data no data no data no data 242.3

Ionization enthalpies /kJ mol-1

Number Enthalpy
1st650
2nd1414
3rd2828
4th4507
5th6270
6th12326
7th14489
8th16760

Isotopes

This section gives some data for naturally occurring isotopes.
Nominal mass Accurate mass % natural abundance
50V49.9471609 (17)0.250 (2)
51V50.9439617 (17)99.750 (2)

Further Information

Copyright 1997 Mark Winter
Department of Chemistry at the University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7HF, England.

The current version of this document is at http://www.shef.ac.uk/~chem/web-elements-I/V.html