WebElements

Periodic Table

yttrium

Atomic number: 39
Atomic weight: 88.90585
Symbol: Y
Group number: 3
Electronic configuration: [Kr].4d1.5s2

Description

Yttrium has a silvery-metallic lustre. Yttrium turnings ignite in air. Yttrium is found in most rare-earth minerals. Moon rocks contain yttrium and yttrium is used as a "phosphor" to produce the red colour in television screens.

General information

Discoveror: Johann Gadolin
Date discovered: 1794
Discovered at: Finland
Meaning of name: Named after the village of "Ytterby" near Vauxholm in Sweden

Physical data

Standard state: solid at 298 K
Colour: silvery white
Density of solid at ambient temperature/kg m-3: 4472
Molar volume/cm3: 19.88

Radii /pm

Atomic: 212
Covalent (single bond):
Pauling radius for the ion [Y]-: no data

Valence shell orbital radius maxima (Rmax)
orbital s p d f
radius189.1no data93.9no data

Electronegativities

Both values are quoted on the Pauling scale.

Pauling: 1.22
Allred Rochow: 1.11

Crystal Structure

structure: hcp (hexagonal close-packed)

The following CrystalMaker image represents the solid state structure. For most elements, the most stable allotrope is illustrated. Try WebElements version 2 for interactive virtual reality and CHIME images.

ball-and-stick.gif

Temperatures (/K)

melting point: 1799
boiling point: 3609

Enthalpies /kJ mol-1

fusion: 11.4
vaporization: 379

single bond enthalpies:
Y-F Y-Cl Y-Br Y-I Y-Y
no data no data no data no data 159

Ionization enthalpies /kJ mol-1

Number Enthalpy
1st616
2nd1181
3rd1980
4th5960
5th7430
6th8970
7th11200
8th12400

Isotopes

This section gives some data for naturally occurring isotopes.
Nominal mass Accurate mass % natural abundance
89Y89.905849 (3)100

Further Information

Copyright 1997 Mark Winter
Department of Chemistry at the University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7HF, England.

The current version of this document is at http://www.shef.ac.uk/~chem/web-elements-I/Y.html